Evaluating the In-vitro Antibacterial Effect of Iranian Propolis on Oral Microorganisms

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Dental Materials, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Research Center for Medical and Technology in Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Departement of Biology, Azzahra University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmacy School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Department of Dental Materials, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6 Department of Dental Materials, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Propolis has traditionally been used in curing infections and healing wounds and burns. Current researches have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions however, the pharmacological activity of propolis is highly variable depending on its geographic origin. There have been few studies on the effects of Iranian propolis on the oral microorganisms. In this in-vitro study, the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and water extracts of the Iranian propolis (10%, w/v) from north-east area of Tehran was evaluated. Susceptibility of the oral strains tested (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668; Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9222; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923; Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 9854 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 39392) was evaluated using the agar diffusion method at a concentration of 20 mg/mL of propolis and the zones of growth inhibition were measured. Antibacterial activity was determined by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at different concentrations of propolis. The ethanolic extract showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against all the strains, with MIC and MBC ranges of 250-500 µg/mL. The MIC concentration of the water extract was 500 µg/mL against S. mutans and E. faecalis. The water extract showed bactericidal activity only against S. mutans (20 mg/mL). These results indicate that the ethanolic extract is probably more useful in the control of oral biofilms and subsequent dental caries development. However, to determine the consequence of the ethanolic extract of Iranian propolis on the oral mucosa, in-vivo studies of its possible effects are needed.

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