Acute and Subchronic Toxicity?of Teucrium polium Total Extract in Rats
|Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2009), 8 (1): 71-75
Received: November 2007
Accepted: February 2008
Copyright ? 2009 by School of Pharmacy
Phenolic compounds from Peucedanum ruthenicum M. Bieb
Seyed Hamid Reza Alavia*, Narguss Yassab, Reza Hajiaghaeec,
Marzieh Matin Yektaa, Niloufar Rezaei Ashtiania,
Yousef Ajanic and Abbas hadjiakhondib
aIAU Pharmaceutical Science Branch, Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. bDepartment of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Medical Sciences University of Tehran, Iran. c Department of pharmacognosy Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
From methanolic extract of aerial parts of Peucedanum ruthenicum M. Bieb (Apiaceae) collected from Mazandaran province of Iran, four flavonoids namely Isorhamnetin 3-0-rutinoside 1, rutin 2, quercetin 3, morin 4 and two phenolic acids namely caffeic acid 5 and p-coumaric acid 6 have been isolated by Paper Chromatography (PC) and crystallization. Their structures were elucidated by MS, 1H, 13C NMR spectra.
There are some 120 species of Peucedanum L. (fam. Apiaceae subfam. Apioideae trib. Peucedaceae) widespread in Europe, Mediterranean region and south, Western and central Asia (1). Four Species of Peucedanum growing in Iran are: P. glaucopruinosum Rech., P. knappii Bornm., P. translucens KH. Rechinger (2) and P. ruthenicum. They are distributed in Iran (3), Europe, Russia and Turkey (4).
P. ruthenicum (Apiaceae) is a glabrous perennial plant that distributed in the north and central part of Iran (3). Some species of this genus have been used traditionally in treatment of colds (5), coughs due to pathogenic wind-heat, accumulation of phlegm, and heat in the lung (6), anti-tussive, and are used as anti-asthmatic and as a remedy for angina (7). Previous phytochemical studies on this species were indicated the presence of furanocoumarins and their glycoside derivatives, linear-type furanocoumarin glucosides and simple coumarin glucosides (8). From P. ruthenicum, a Bulgarian Umbelliferae, peucedanin (furanocoumarin) and a coumarin (peuruthenicin) in the roots and rutin (flavonol glycoside) in the flowers (9) have been isolated. Several new coumarins from P. praeruptorum Dunn. have been reported (6).
There were some reports related to the chemical analysis of voltile oil of this genus in the literature. The major components of herb and rhizome essential oil of P. ostruthium were sabinene (35.2%), 4-terpineol (26.6%), β-caryophyllene (16.1%) and α-humulene (15.8%) (10). The major constituents of P. verticillare leaf and branch oil were sabinene and trans-anethole. β-Caryophyllene, α-Phellandrene, cis-β-farnesene and β-bisabolene were components of P. verticillare dried fruit oil and sabinene was the constituent of P. verticillare fresh fruit oil (11).
In this work the structures of phenolic compounds from the aerial part of P. ruthenicum M. Bieb is reported.
Melting points were taken on a Reichert-Jung apparatus (Vienna, Austria). Ultraviolet spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu 160A spectrometer (Kyoto, Japan). Electron Ionization Mass Spectra (EIMS) were determined on a Finnigan MAT TSQ 70 (California, USA) at 70eV.?H NMR and ??C NMR spectra were measured in DMSO and CDCl3 with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard using a Varian 400 Unity plus spectrometer. FTIR spectra were recorded on a Nicolet 550 spectrometer (Madison, WI, USA). Chromatographic papers were purchased from Whatman Company. All compounds for UV spectral shift reagents, natural product reagent and sugar indicator, solvents, glacial acetic acid, authentic samples of sugars and concentrated NH3 were purchased from Merck Company.
The aerial parts of P. ruthenicum were collected in October 2004 from Roodbarak (Mazandaran province) north of Iran and identified by Dr. H. Akhani (Dept. of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran). A voucher specimen is deposited in the private herbarium of Dr. H. Akhani (hb.Akh. Salimian 39).
Dried powdered aerial parts (0.1 kg) of the plant were extracted with pure methanol (2.5 l) by percolation (one week). The solvent was evaporated and dried in vacuum at 45?C to give a gummy residue (13.5 g). This residue was then treated with 10 ml. water and gave a cloudy suspension, which was extracted with chloroform (3?50 ml). The solvent (methanol-water) was evaporated and dried in vacuum at 45?C and the residue (11.2 g) was analyzed on paper chromatography (PC). The chromatograms were developed descendingly in the long direction of Whatman 3 MM chromatographic papers in the chromatocab using BAW (n-butanol: acetic acid: water, 4:1:5) as eluent for 12 h to obtain phenolic compound lines as follow: line1 (17 mg, Rf=0.63, purple before and after using NH3 at 366 nm), line 2 (32 mg, Rf=0.61, purple color before and after using NH3 at 366 nm), line 3 (27 mg, Rf=0.75, purple color before and after using NH3 at 366 nm), line 4 (12 mg, Rf=0.88, purple color before and after using NH3 at 366 nm), line 5 (16 mg, Rf=0.53, blue color before and after using NH3 at 366 nm), line 6 (14 mg, Rf=0.49, blue before and after using NH3 at 366 nm). each line extracted with methanol maceration.
For further purification, compounds were subjected to PC with 15% acetic acid as eluent to separate compounds 1 (Rf =0.81 purple before and after using NH3 at 366 nm), 2 (Rf=0.74, purple before and after using NH3 under 366 nm), 3 (Rf=0.32, purple before and after using NH3 under 366 nm), 4 (Rf=0.45, purple before and after using NH3 under 366 nm), 5 (Rf=0.41, blue before and after using NH3 under 366 nm) 2 and 6 (Rf=0.38, blue before and after using NH3 at 366 nm). Detection of flavonoids was carried out under ultraviolet lamp (366 nm).
Results and Discussion
Compound 1 gave the characteristic UV spectrum of isorhamnetin and a free 700 H group (12) and the EIMS spectrum showed a [M-(Glu+Rh)]+ at m/z 316. The 1HNMR confirmed the presence of one isorhamnetin nucleus since methoxy (Delta H=3.83) and two aromatic spin systems, Delta H 7.51 (J, 8.4, 2.4), 6.92 (J, 8.4) and 7.85 (J=2.4 Hz) corresponded to H-6?, H-5? and H-2?, respectively, and Delta H 6.4 (J= 2.4) and Delta 6.1 (J= 2.4) to H-8 and H-6, respectively (Table 1). The 1HNMR spectrum of compounds 1 and 2 indicated the presence of one rhamnosyl and one glycosyl moieties with characteristic signals at 4.2 and 4.3 ppm (H-1???, H-1???, d, J=1.5 hz) and 1.09 and 0.9 ppm (H-6???, H-6???, d, J= 6.2 Hz) for rhamnose and anomeric proton of β- glucose at 5.2 and 5.3 ppm (H-1?, d, J=7.3 Hz). The rhamonse moiety must be attached to glucosyl, as, the glucose 13C signals equivalent to those seen in data available from the literature (13, 14). Thus, 1 is isorhamnetin 3-0-rutinoside.
The chemical shifts of compound 2 are shown in Table 1. The aromatic carbon shifts of the flovonoid glycoside rutin 2 can be assigned by the use of quercetin 3 as model and the data of sugar were explained before compound 3 was assigned by use of the HNMR spectrum. It showed characteristic signals of a flavonol (3-Hydroxy flavone) with a spin-spin coupling pattern resulting from the presence of oxygen atoms at C4, C5 and C4 and C7. Thus, an AB pattern was observed for H6 and H8, with J=2 Hz and a pattern typical of a 1, 2, 4- trisubstituted hydrorylated benzene with Delta 7.8 (d, J=2Hz, H-2?), 7.59 (dd, J=8.4 Hz, J=2, H-6?) and 6.88 (d, J=8.4 Hz, H-5?), corresponding to quercetin.
The flavonol morin 4 was assigned by comparison with quercetin 3, a substance possessing the same substitution pattern of rings A and B and a pattern of a 1, 3, 4 trisubstituted hydroxylated benzene was observed for C ring with Delta 7.4 (d, J=8.4 Hz, H-6?), 6.5 (dd, J=7.4, J=2.4 Hz, H-5?) and 6.3 (d, J=2.4, H-3?). The common pathway of fragmentation of flavonoids is a retro-Dicls Alder reaction that, in the case of morin, gives the m/z 152 and 150 ions (15).
Compound 5 and 6 were identified as caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, by comparing their EI-MS, 1HNMR and spectra with published data 13CNMR (16, 17). The chemical shifts of the compounds 5 and 6 are shown in Table 3.
This research was partially supported by a grant from Iran Chapter of TWAS.
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