Composition of the Essential Oil of the Root of Heracleum persicum from Iran

Authors

Abstract

The essential oil of the root of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) was analyzed by capillary GC and GC /MS. The major constituents were identified as viridiflorol (23.05 %), elemol (3.63 %), b-maliene (3.07 %), spathulenol (3.34 %) and 2-tetradecanol (3.38 %).

Keywords


Composition of the essential oil of the roots of Heracleum persicum from Iran
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2003) 245-247
Received: May 2003
Accepted: October 2003

Original Article

 

Composition of the Essential Oil of the Root of Heracleum persicum from Iran

 

Faraz Mojab*, Bahman Nickavar

 

?Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran.

* Corresponding author E.mail: sfmojab@yahoo.com


Abstract

 

The essential oil of the root of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) was analyzed by capillary GC and GC /MS. The major constituents were identified as viridiflorol (23.05 %), elemol (3.63 %), b-maliene (3.07 %), spathulenol (3.34 %) and 2-tetradecanol (3.38 %).

Keywords: Heracleum persicu; Umbelliferae; Essential oil; Viridiflorol; b‑maliene; Elemol.


Introduction

 

Heracleum genus has 10 species in Iran. H. persicum Desf. Ex Fischer (syn. H. pubescens Rech., H.glabrescens Boiss. & Hohen.) (Apiaceae) is an annual herb, indigenous to the Alborz region, the northern part of Iran, where it grows at an altitude ranging from 2000 to 3000 m (1). Its fruits are used commonly in Iran as spices, while the fruits and the young shoots are used in the preparation of pickles. In folk medicine, the fruits were administered because of their carminative activity (2).

A search through the literature revealed that roots of H. persicum have been investigated because of their of furanocoumarins; five of which compounds were isolated and identified (3). Another report dealt with the presence of such compounds in leaves and seeds of this species (4) (from the seeds, six furanocoumarins were isolated, two of which were also found in the leaves). From the diethyl ether extracts of the fruits of H. persicum, an aglycone was identified which was revealed to be quercetin (5).

The essential oil from of fruits (6) and leaves (7) of H. persicum was investigated by means of GLC, GC/MS, and NMR. The fruit oil contained about 95 % of aliphatic esters, 4 % of aliphatic alcohols and 1 % of monoterpenes 37 esters and 17 monoterpenes were also identified (6). Major component in the leaf oil was trans-anethole. Other components were b-pinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, a-caryophylene, a-bergamotene, a-farnesene, zingiberene, spathulenol, cis-anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene and b-springene (7). The oil analysis of some genus Heracleum has neen reported, previously (8-14). Literature review show that, the chemical composition of the oil of H. persicum root has not been studied so far. The main aim of this article was identification and determination of essential oil components of this plant.

 

Experimental

 

Plant Material

Roots of Heracleum persicum Desf. Ex Fischer were collected in Chalous Road (north of Tehran) in Auguest 1996, at altitude 2400m. Voucher specimens were authenticated and then deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Pharmacognosy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Voucher No. 15).

 

Essential oil Extraction

The air-dried roots of the plant were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 h using a clevenger- type apparatus.

?The oil was analyzed using GC/FID HP 6890 fitted with a 30-m x 0.25 mm

HP5 column, that was temperature programmed as follow: 60?C (2min) to

240?C (5 min) at 5?C/min, with He as carrier gas (1 ml/min), the temperature of the injector and detector were 260?C and 230?C, respectively.

GC/MS: HP 5973 with a HP 5 column, 25 mm x 0.25 mm (film thickness

0.25 μm) was used. The operation conditions were as described above. The ionization voltage was 70 eV. Identification of compounds was based on a comparison of their mass spectra with Standards (15). Confirmtion of compound identities was obtained using retention index (15).

 

Results and Discussion

 

Hydrodistillation of dried roots of H. persicum in a clevenger-type apparatus yielded 0.13 % yellowish color and a strong odor. As it is shown in Table 1, ca 61% (45 compounds) of the oil was identified. It also showed that the main constituent was viridiflorol (23%). Other major components (>1%) were a-pinene, b-pinene, n-octanal, p-cymene-8-ol, (E, Z)-a-farnesene, 2-tetradecanol, kessane, (-)-spathulenol, b-maliene, b-selinene, a-amorphene and elemol. b-Pinene, a-terpinene and dihydrocarveol have been detected in the root oil of H. canescens as major components (13). Terpinen-4-ol and a-terpinene in the root oil of H.ponticum, and allo ocimene (cis and trans) in the root oil of H. lehmaniannum, were detected, too (14). Among of components identified in root, 1-hexanol, a-pinene, limonene, cis-ocimene and linalool in fruit, and a-terpinolene, E-anethol, E-a-bergamotene, spathulenol, Z- and E-a-farnesene in leaves of H.persicum have been reported, previously. b-pinene exists in root, leaves and friuts of the plant (3, 7). Viriflorol was reported in some of essential oils, previously (16-22).

 

Table 1. Chemical composition of the root oil of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer

Compound

RI

percentage

Identification Method

1-Hexanol

867

0.08

GC/MS

Heptanal

904

0.29

GC/MS

a-Pinene

952

1.14

GC/MS

1-Heptanol

965

0.12

GC/MS

b-Pinene

975

1.11

GC/MS

2-Pentyl furane

990

0.19

?MS

n-Octanal

1003

1.04

GC/MS

Limonene

1026

.34

GC/MS

cis-Ocimene

1034

.11

GC/MS

1-Octanol

1067

.18

GC/MS

a-Terpinolene

1086

.57

GC/MS

Linalool

1098

.21

GC/MS

n-Nonanal

1102

0.29

GC/MS

Verbenol*

1141

.32

GC/MS

p-Cymen-8-ol

1183

1.78

GC/MS

a-terpineol

1189

0.33

GC/MS

Myrtenol

1193

0.62

GC/MS

trans-Piperitol

1205

0.19

GC/MS

trans-Carveol

1217

0.22

GC/MS

?1-Ethyl-2, 4-dimethyl benzene

?-

0.17

?MS

Phellandral

1227

0.13

?MS

trans-2-Decenal

1258

0.48

GC/MS

trans-Anethole

1281

0.98

GC/MS

Thymol

1290

0.45

GC/MS

2-Dodecanol

1298

0.78

GC/MS

(E, E)-2, 4-Decadienal

1312

0.29

GC/MS

a-Copaene

1368

0.14

GC/MS

2-Dodecanol

1395

0.21

GC/MS

trans-a-Bergamotene

1428

0.54

GC/MS

Ar-curcumene

1474

0.43

GC/MS

(E, Z)-a-Farnesene

1487

1.73

GC/MS

2-Tetradecanol

1496

3.38

GC/MS

Myristicin

1514

0.88

GC/MS

Kessane

1520

1.69

GC/MS

Hedycariol

1537

0.36

?MS

Nerolidol

1552

0.52

GC/MS

(-)-Spathulenol

1564

3.34

GC/MS

Calarene

-

0.63

MS

b-Maliene

?-

3.67

GC/MS

b-Selinene

?-

1.42

GC/MS

a-Amorphene

-

2.44

?MS

Viridiflorol

1583

3.05

GC/MS

Elemol

?-

3.63

GC/MS

Cyclotetradecane

1657

0.84

GC/MS

Valerenol

1660

0.60

?MS

* isomer was not identified.

 

Acknowledgements

 

We are grateful to Dr. M. R. S. Ardakani, Department of Pharmacognosy, school of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, for his collaboration in GC/MS experiment.

 

References

 

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