Characterization of Volatile Constituents from Aerial Parts of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica)

Authors

Abstract

The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Varthemia. persica DC. var. persica, growing wild in Iran, were investigated by GC-MS. Sixty seven constituents were identified. ?-Cadinene (9.7%), Selin-11-en-4-?-ol (5.30%), Germacrene D (4.9%), Bicyclogermacrene (4.7%), ??Muurolene (4.7%), ?-Eudesmol (4.52%), ?-Himachalen oxide (3.6%), ?-Eudesmol (3.54%), ?-Bourbonene (3.21%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil respectively.

Keywords


Characterization of Volatile Constituents from Aerial Parts of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica)
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2003) 241-243
Received: April 2003
Accepted: November 2003

Original Article

 
Characterization of Volatile Constituents from Aerial Parts of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica)

 

Nasrollah Ghasemia, Gholamreza Asgharia, Mohammadreza Shams Ardakanib,
Amir Siahpoush*
a

 

aDepartment of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. bDepartment of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran,.Iran. * Corresponding author E-mail: siahpoosh@form.mui.ac.ir


Abstract

 

The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Varthemia. persica DC. var. persica, growing wild in Iran, were investigated by GC-MS. Sixty seven constituents were identified. δ-Cadinene (9.7%), Selin-11-en-4-α-ol (5.30%), Germacrene D (4.9%), Bicyclogermacrene (4.7%), α‑Muurolene (4.7%), β-Eudesmol (4.52%), β-Himachalen oxide (3.6%), γ-Eudesmol (3.54%), β-Bourbonene (3.21%)? were found to be the major constituents of the oil respectively.

 

Keywords: Varthemia persica; Asteraceae; Volatile Oil; δ-Cadinene.


Introduction

 

The aromatic genus Varthemia (Asteraceae) has one species, V. persica DC, in Iran. This species is also distributed in Afghanistan and Pakistan. V. persica has three varieties includ?ing var. persica, squarrosula and stenocephalas (1-3). In this study the essential oils of aerial parts of V. persica var. persica were analyzed.

There is no report on the pharmacological activity of this species, but antibacterial, anti?spasmodic and hypoglycemic effect have been reported for other spices (4, 5)???

 
Experimental

 

Plant materials:Aerial parts of Varthemia persica DC. were collected from the northen slopes of Karkas mountains, at altitudes of? 2200 - 2400 m in Isfahan province, Iran. The plant was identified by Mr. Mehregan, Depart?ment of Pharmaco?gnosy, School of? Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A voucher specimen (1378) has been deposited in the herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Analysis:The volatile oil was obtained by wet steam distillation (for 2 h) and analyzed by a GC/MS (Hewlett-Packard 6890) equipped with a HP-5MS capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm; film thickness 0.25 μm) coupled with a Hewlett-Packard 6890 ion trap detector. The carrier gas was helium with a flow rate of 2 ml/min. The oven temperature was started at 60? C and then increased at a rate of 4?C/min, until reach to the temperature of 280?C. Other conditions of the instrument were as follows: ionization voltage, 70 ev; injector temperature, 280?C; ion source temperature, 200?C.

Compounds were identified by comparing the retention indices of the peaks on the HP-5 MS column relative to n-alkanes with literature values and comparison of the WILEY275 li?brary, as well as by comparison of the frag?mentation patterns of the mass spectra with those reported in the literature (7, 8). Relative percentages of the separated compounds were calculated from the total ion chromatograms by computerized integration.?

 
Results and Discussion

 

The aerial parts of V. persica yielded 0.1% of a yellowish oil. The identified components accounted for 86.5% of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 67 components.? List of compounds identified in the oil are presented in table 1.This is the first report on the analysis of volatile oil of V. persica var. persica. The interesting point to note is that there is no previous report on phy?tochemical studies on the other Varthemia spp either.

The V. persica volatile oil? contains mainly terpenoid including monoterepens (3.28%), oxygenated monoterpens (1.82%), sesquitere?pens (44.91%) and oxygenated sesquiterepens (36.49%). this may indicate the existence of a correlation between mono and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons content and the level of oxygen?ated mono and sesquiterpens. It seems that the V. persica oil is a sesquiterepen-rich essential oil (>80%).

As presented in table 1, the δ-Cadinene (9.7%), Selin-11-en-4-α-ol (5.30%), Germacrene D (4.9%), Bicyclogermacrene (4.7%), α-Muurolene (4.7%), β-Eudesmol (4.52%), β-Himachalen oxide (3.6%), γ‑Eudesmol (3.54%), β-Bourbonene (3.21%)? were found to be the major constituents of the oil. However, several studies carried out on aromatic plants have shown that volatile oil composition may vary considerably throughout a year (9, 10).


Table 1. Composition of volatile constituents from aerial parts of Varthemia persica DC.

Peak

???? Compound

Retention

Index*

Percentage

1

α-Thujene

931

0.20

2

α-Pinene

939

0.16

3

Sabinene

976

0.53

4

β-Pinene

980

0.09

5

Myrcene

991

0.03

6

α-Phellandrene

1005

0.02

7

δ-3-Carene

1011

0.02

8

α-Terpinene

1018

0.44

9

ρ-Cymene

1026

0.24

10

Limonene

1031

0.11

11

γ-Terpinene

1062

1.11

12

Teroinolene

1088

0.33

13

Isopentyl isovalerat

1103

0.03

14

Menthol

1173

0.04

15

Terpin-4-ol

1177

0.35

16

Decanal

1204

0.58

17

Octanol acetate

1211

0.05

18

Sabinene hydrate acetate

1253

0.06

19

Decanol

1272

0.23

20

Bornyl acetat

1285

0.08

21

Acetophenone

1297

0.06

22

Tridecane

1299

0.04

23

Undec-9-en-1-al

1308

0.12

24

Sesamol

1312

0.08

25

Limonene aldehyd

1325

0.14

26

α-Cubebene

1351

0.17

27

α-Ylangene

1372

0.94

28

α-Copaene

1376

1.88

29

β-Bourbonene

1384

3.21

30

Longifolene

1387

0.23

31

β-Elemene

1391

0.88

32

Trimenal

1395

0.12

33

Tetradecane

1399

0.09

34

α-Cedrene

1409

0.41

35

Caryophylene trans(E)

1418

3.90

36

β-Gurjunene

1432

0.90

37

γ-Elemene

1433

0.20

38

Aromadendrene

1439

0.70

39

α-Humulene

1454

1.31

40

Allo-Aromadendrene

1461

1.27

41

Germacrene D

1480

4.90

42

β-Selinene

1485

1.50

43

Bicyclogermacrene

1494

4.70

44

α-Muurolene

1499

4.70

45

γ-Cadinene

1513

1.60

46

δ-Cadinene

1524

9.70

47

Artedouglosia oxid A

1535

1.95

48

α-Calacorene

1542

1.30

49

Elemol

1549

1.30

50

β-Calacorene

1563

0.34

51

Spathulenol

1576

2.10

52

Arteannuic alcohol

1593

0.55

53

Cedrol

1596

0.43

54

Himachalen oxide (β)

1610

3.60

55

Cubenol (1,10-di-epi)

1614

1.66

56

γ-Eudesmol

1630

3.54

57

Cubenol

1642

1.05

58

Selin-11-en-4-α-ol

1652

5.30

59

β-Eudesmol

1649

4.52

60

Khusinol

1674

1.76

61

Cedrol-5-neo

1677

1.61

62

Cedren-13-ol

1688

2.93

63

β-Sinensal

1695

0.84

64

α-Atlantone

1713

0.91

65

Bisabolene

1737

0.28

66

β-Bisabolen-12-ol

1760

0.37

67

α-Atlantone

1773

0.10

* Retention indices on HP-5 capillary column

 

Aknowledgement

 

This study was supported by a grant from the research council of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

 

References

 

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