Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2004): Supplement 2:
2nd International Congress on Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica
In vitro antifungal effect and chemical composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil on some fungi
Pourbaig M.V.M., Omidbaigi R., Farshbaf M. M., Ghaemi A.
Department of Plant Pathology, School of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
In this study, thyme essensial oil was extracted by water distillation method and was analysed by GS/MS, then we investigated the antifungal effect of this essential oil on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. (A), Macrophomina phaseolina (B), Bipolaris spicifera (C) on the basis of agar dilution method with different concentrations (200, 400, 800 and 1600)
The test was carried out with factorial experiment based on the random complete block design with triplicate.
1- The major compuonds of thyme essensial oil were found to be Terpinen (4.65%), Cymene (12.16%), Thymol (19.8%), Linallol (4%), and Caryophyllene (4.07%).
2- Analysis of data with LSD (α=1%) showed that inhibitory percentage between fungi was different. After 48 hours results showed no significant difference between the growth of fungi at 800 and 1600 ppm and also between water and alcohol controls, but differences between 200 and 400 ppm were significant. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of A and C fungi was observed in 400 ppm, where as it was 800 ppm in the case of B fungy. Concentrations of 800 and 1600 ppm were 100% inhibitor about all the fungi.
After 72 hours investigation showed the similar results to the period of 48 hours growth time. The concentration of 400 ppm was inhibitor on A and C Fungi completely after 72 hours, but the minimum inhibitory concentration for B fungy was increased to 1600 ppm. After 3 days, 1600 ppm treatment was completely inhibitor for all fungi. After 7 days, it was found out that 800 & 1600 ppm on A fungy, 1600 ppm on B fungy and 400 ppm, 800 ppm, 1600 ppm on C fungy was inhibitor completely.
3- Investigation on thyme fungicidal effect showed that concentration of 1600 ppm was fungicide on B and C fungi but other concentrations have fungistatic property.
The results of our studies revealed that the thyme essensial oil exhibited a significant antifungal activity.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) belongs to Labiateae family. It is an important medicinal plant. The antifungal and antibacterial activity of this essential oil has been reported.Thyme antifungal activity is due to the persence of thymol that is the major compound of this essential oil.