Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2004): Supplement 2:
2nd International Congress on Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica
The hematologic effects of cigarette smoking in healthy men volunteers
School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Substances existed in tobacco smoke including carcinogens, alkaloids (mainly nicotine), irritants of the respiratory tract and carbon monoxide are known responsible for a wide range of diseases and disorders. The current study was designed to investigate the hematologic effects of smoking.
This study is an observational, cross-sectional investigation in which the peripheral blood erythrocytic and leukocytic status as well as platelet count were studied in 51 healthy male cigarette-smoker (mean age: 31±5 yrs.) and in 35 male non-smoker (mean age: 28±2 yrs.) volunteers. Non of the volunteers in both groups had a history of medication 3 months prior to blood sampling. Smokers had at least a 5-year history of smoking and smoked 10-20 cigarettes per day. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes (WBC), erythrocytes (RBC) and thrombocytes (Plts) were counted in smoker and non-smoker groups. Also, hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct) and red blood cell indices (MCV, MCH and MCHC) were determined. Statistical analyses were carried out using the unpaired student t test.
In the smoker group, the amounts of WBC, RBC and Hgb were significantly higher compared to those of the non-smoker group (p<0.05). The differential leukocyte count showed difference between smokers and non-smokers, which was mainly attributable to increases in neutrophils and lymphocytes in the smokers (p<0.05). In contrast, the amounts of MCH and MCHC in the smoker group were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to those of the non-smoker group. No difference was observed between the Plts count and MCV in two groups.
The differences detected between peripheral blood leukocytes and erythrocytes composition of smokers and non-smokers may be reflections of the gaseous and solid phases of cigarette smoke toxic product effects on the bone marrow as well as the adaptive, defensive and immunologic reactions of the body to long-term active smoking.