Cerebral stroke is a leading cause of serious disability and is the third leading cause of death in most countries and its prevention is a key to reduction of morbidity, mortality, and disability. This study investigated the relationship between hyperlipidemia (cholesterol and triglyceride), polycythemia, and incidence of cerebral stroke. Data was obtained from 70 participants that hospitalized for a one-year period and recorded in checklists in Fatemiah hospital (Semnan, Iran). In this respect, levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride and hematocrit were determined. Results indicated that the mean age of patients was 72 years old. The percentage of risk factors was 34% (hypercholesterolemia), 20% (hypertriglyceridemia), 9% (polycythemia) and other risk factors were 67% (hypertension), 40% (diabetes), 44% (heart diseases), 19% (smoking) and 24% only reported a history of stroke in their family. It may be concluded that hyperlipidemia and polycythemia are two major risk factors with involvement in incidence of cerebral stroke. Therefore, control of these factors can reduce the prevalence of stroke.