Oliveria decumbens, a bioactive essential oil: Chemical composition and biological activities

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Drug and Food Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Biotechnology Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran

7 Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

8 Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

9 Dِِِepartment of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

10 Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Abstract

Oliveria decumbens is an aromatic plant traditionally used for treatment of infections and gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, the volatile oil of the plant was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In addition, antibacterial and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of this essential oil were determined using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. Insecticidal activity was assessed through topical and fumigation application of the essential oil to cabbage looper larvae. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by the essential oil was examined using Ellman’s method. Furthermore, its cytotoxic potential against three different cancer cell lines was assessed using the MTT assay. The phenolic monoterpenoids, thymol (38.79%) and carvacrol (36.3%) were identified as major constituents of the essential oil. We observed significant antibacterial activity of the essential oil against H. pylori (MIC=20.4 µg /mL) as well as other tested bacteria, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. O. decumbens essential oil showed significant toxicity to cabbage looper larvae with LD50 value of 52.1 µg /larva following topical and fumigant administration. O. decumbens essential oil was considerably inhibitory to acetylcholinesterase activity (IC50=0.117 µg/ml). Cytotoxic assay of the volatile oil resulted in IC50 =0.065, 0.104 and 0.141 μg/mL for MCF-7, T47D and MDA- MB-231 cell lines, respectively. According to our data, this species with high concentrations of thymol and carvacrol could be considered as a natural source for pharmaceutical products.

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