Document Type: Research article
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, in turn, are responsible for mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated whether a single parenteral dose of 25(OH) Vit D could improve the endothelial function in T2D patients with ischemic heart disease. A randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind trial was performed on 112 patients randomly divided into vitamin D (n = 55) and placebo (n = 57) groups. A randomization table was used to administer a single dose of either vitamin D (300000 IU) or a matching placebo, intramuscularly. The levels of 25(OH Vit D, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured at baseline and at 8 weeks. In the supplemented group, the level of serum 25(OH) Vit D was increased significantly (29.6 ± 20.8 vs. 44.5 ± 19.2 ng/mL; P < 0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. Within the supplemented group, before and after vitamin D intervention no significant changes in the levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed. Expectedly, the level of 25(OH Vit D increased significantly in the supplemented group. The marginal means of the outcome variables (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and 25(OH) Vit D) were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, adjusted for the baseline of each variable itself: no significant difference was seen in the markers of the endothelial function. A single parenteral dose of vitamin D in T2D patients with ischemic heart disease failed to show improvement in endothelial function.