An Investigation into the Role of P-Glycoprotein in the Intestinal Absorption of Repaglinide: Assessed by Everted Gut Sac and Caco-2 Cell Line

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

The present study aimed at exploring the potential of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters as a barrier to the repaglinide (REG) epithelial permeability. In-vitro intestinal absorption models, the everted gut sac, and Caco-2 cell line, were used to study the possible role of P-gp in intestinal transport of REG. In the everted gut sacs, apparent permeability coefficients showed cargo concentration dependency transport over the concentration of 40 µM, indicating involvement of a saturable mechanism in REG absorption (Papp were 1.23 × 10 -5and 3.29 × 10 -5at drug concentrations of 40 and 100 μM, respectively). Adding verapamil (100 μM), valspodar (5 μM) and ketoconazole (10 μM) significantly enhanced the permeability of REG across mucosal to serosal in the rat jejunum (P < 0.05) suggesting role of CYP 3A4 and/or efflux transporters in oral bioavailability of REG. However, the results of Caco-2 cell experiments indicated low efflux ratios (less than 2) and insignificant involvement of P-gp efflux pumps in REG intestinal transport. Given that Caco-2 cells do not express adequate level of CYP 3A4, the current study suggests that the presystemic metabolism by cytochrome P450 (and not ejection by P-gp) may play a significant role in limiting the oral absorption of REG in small intestine.

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