Toxicity and Potential Pharmacological Activities in the Persian Gulf Venomous Sea Anemone, Stichodactyla haddoni

Document Type: Research article


1 Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technologies, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization.

3 Laboratory of Venom and Biotherapeutics Molecules, Department of Medical Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.


Numerous proteins and peptides in venomous marine animals are potentially active molecules with pharmacological properties. Particular condition of the Persian Gulf as a closed ecosystem is a good opportunity to study of biological activities and toxicity of venomous animals. In this study, Stichodactyla haddoni (S. haddoni), a sea anemone, selected to tracing for possible pharmaceutical agents and toxicological characterization. Analgesic, edematic, dermonecrotic, LD50, phospholipase, and proteolytic activities of the venom were estimated. LD50 was recorded at 675µg by intraperitoneal injection. Analgesic activitiy of crude venom on Balb/c mice at both 100 and 150 µg were dose dependent as a linear trend. Three folds increase of activity was seen at both 100 and 150 µg after 240 min comparing to activity of morphine at 200 µg. The crude venom at amount of 0.23 µg produced 50% hemolysis. The highest edematogenic activity was seen on Balb/c mice just two hours after injection for both 168 µg (157%) and 335 µg (247%). The crude venom at 675 µg made 4 mm inflammation area on rabbit skin after 3 h but the amount of 1000 µg induced 8 mm necrosis area. Potent analgesic activity of the venom was seen below its toxic dose that was very greater than the other sea anemones in the other geographical areas. The results indicate that a persistent edematogenic activity could be happened after envenomation. Instant potent edematogenic and rapid dermonecrotic activity were significant phenomena. HD50 at 0.23 µg indicates that a very potent hemolytic agent exists in the venom. The results would also be of high value to better management of envenomation. This study confirmed the great value of further studies on the Persian Gulf S. haddonivenom. 


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