Molecular and biochemical evidences for beneficial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in modulation of chlorpyrifos toxicity in human lymphocytes

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 epartment of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Toxicology and Diseases Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Toxicology and Diseases Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 . Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Chlorpyrifos (CP), an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, is used throughout the world as an insecticide in agriculture and an eradicating agent for termites around homes. In this present study, CP is considered as an oxidative agent which we examine the protective role of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in CP-treated lymphocytes of human. Lymphocytes isolated by Ficoll and exposed to 75 µg/ml CP either alone or in combination with logarithmic doses of ZnO NPs (0/1, 1, 10, 100 µg/ml). After a 3-day incubation period, the viability and oxidative stress markers were determined. Then, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as inflammatory index along with AChE activity and cell death were evaluated. Our results showed that incubation with CP significantly increase the percent of cell death, activities of caspase-3 and -9, level of TNF-α and also promote the levels of biomarkers which play important roles in oxidative stress. On the other hand, the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant power (TAP) decreased in CP-treated lymphocytes. In contrast, lymphocytes treated with different concentrations of ZnO NPs, as antioxidant agents, showed a significant decrease in the percent of mortality as well as the levels of TNF-α, as compared with CP-treated lymphocytes. Besides, ZnO NPs increased the levels of AchE and TAP in 0/1, 1, 10, 100 µg/ml, among them the meaningful change was observed in 1 µg/ml. In conclusion, results declare the protective effects of ZnO NPs in prevention of cytotoxic activity of the organophosphates CP in the lymphocytes.

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