Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL, AmpC and Carbapenemase- producing Enterobactericeae isolated from hospitalized patients in Azerbaijan, Iran

Document Type : Research article


1 Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Department of Laboratory Sciences, Paramedical Faculty and Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Current study was conducted to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase- producers among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Three hundred and seven non-duplicative clinical isolates were collected from hospitalized patients in five medical centers in Azerbaijan, Iran. Initial screening for β-lactamase production was performed using disc agar diffusion according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phenotypic confirmatory tests was done using total ESBL/AmpC confirm kit, KPC/MBL and OXA-48 confirm kit according to manufacturer’s instructions. The overall prevalence of ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase-producing strains were 42.7%(131/307), 14.0%(43/307) and 4.9%(15/307), respectively. The prevalence of ESBLs was 38.35%, 64.9% and 35.7% for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Carbapenemase activity was only observed among 15 K. pneumoniae isolates and detected phenotypes include MBL (9/57, 15.8%), KPC (4/57, 7.0%), and OXA-48 (2/57, 3.5%). Fourteen out of 307 isolates (4.6%) were recognized to have ESBL or AmpC hyper-producer with decreased cell wall permeability phenotype. All 4 shigella strains were positive for ESBL and 4 isolates of P. mirabilis, 2 isolates of M. morganii and 1 seratia spp. were detected as AmpC producer. The only C. freundii strain isolated was positive for both ESBL and AmpC. This study reveals high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) β-lactamase-producing Enterobactericeae reaching 89.5%. Imipenem and meropenem showed potent antibacterial activities against all MDR β-lactamase-producers except for carbapenemase producers. After carbapenems, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were second the most effective drugs against β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates.


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