Antiparasitic Activity and Essential Oil Chemical Analysis of the Piper Tuberculatum Jacq Fruit

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Biological Chemistry, Regional University of Cariri, Crato, CE, Brazil.

2 Center for the Development of Scientific Research, Foundation Moisés Bertoni/Laboratories Diaz Gill, Asunción-Paraguay.

3 Department of Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraíba, Paraíba, PB, Brazil.

Abstract

With the increase of neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, there was
a need for the search for new therapeutic alternatives that reduce the harm caused by medicine
available for treatment. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the antiparasitic activity
of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq, against lines of Leishmania
braziliensis (MHOM/CO/88/UA301), Leishmania infantum (MHOM/ES/92/BCN83) and
Trypanosoma cruzi (LC-B5 clone). Before running protocols, an analysis of the chemical
composition of essential oil was conducted, which presented monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.
As major constituents, β-pinene and α-pinene were identified. Regarding to antiparasitic activity,
the essential oil had an EC50 values of 133.97 μg/mL and 143.59 μg/mL against variations
promastigotes of L. infantum and L. braziliensis, respectively. As for trypanocidal activity, the
oil showed EC50 value of 140.31 μg/mL against epimastigote form of T. cruzi. Moreover, it
showed moderate cytotoxicity in fibroblasts with LC50 value of 204.71 μg/mL. The observed
effect may be related to the presence of terpenes contained in the essential oil, since it has its
antiparasitic activity proven in the literature.

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