Brain Targeting of 1,9-Pyrazoloanthrone an c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase Inhibitor Using Liposomes for Effective Management of Parkinson’s Disease

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Dept of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Rockland, Elkhil Road, Ooty. 643001

2 Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, JSS University, Mysore 643001, India

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, JSS University, Mysore 643001, India

4 Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, JSS University, Mysore 643001, India

5 Department of Pharmacology, Indore Institute of Pharmacy, Pithampur road, Opp. IIM, Rau, Indore, M.P, India

6 Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905 – USA

7 Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, JSS University, Mysore, Tamilnadu-643001, India

Abstract

The major challenge to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD) is penetration of target molecule into the brain to improve the efficacy of drugs. To achieve better brain penetration and targeted delivery, 1,9-Pyrazoloanthrone (1,9-P) loaded liposomes were developed by solvent injection technique using ultrasonication and evaluated for particle size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, FT-IR, and in-vitro drug release studies. The potential of 1,9-Pyrazoloanthrone (1,9-P), a c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK-3) inhibitor which could stop or retard the rate of apoptosis of neuronal cells was also evaluated. In-vivo pharmacokinetic and brain uptake studies of liposomes were performed to investigate the bioavailability and brain distribution of 1,9-P. Cytotoxicity and neuroprotection were done on SH-SY5Y cell line using MTT and AO/EB apoptosis assay. The optimized batch of liposomes showed an average size of 112.33 ± 0.84 nm with a zeta potential value of -19.40 mV and 78.96 ± 0.28% drug entrapment efficiency. The in-vitro release studies demonstrated the sustained release profile of liposome up to 24 h. The pharmacokinetic data in Wistar rats over the period of 12 h demonstrated 4.82-folds greater AUC (0-12 h) for liposome in brain compared with 1,9-P suspension. Cytotoxicity assay showed no sign of toxicity, whereas apoptosis assay revealed a neuroprotective action of liposomes. The results demonstrated successful targeting of the 1,9-P, to brain as a novel strategy having significant therapeutic potential to treat PD.

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