Physicochemical and Immunomodulatory Properties of Gum Exudates Obtained from Astragalus myriacanthus and Some of Its Isolated Carbohydrate Biopolymers

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Student Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

5 Student Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Abstract

Plants gums are complex mixtures of different polysaccharides with a variety of biological activities and pharmaceutical applications. Few studies have focused on physicochemical and biological properties of gums obtained from different plants.
This study was designed to determine potential pharmaceutical and pharmacological values of the gum exudates and its isolated biopolymers obtained from Astragalus myriacanthus Boiss [syn. Astracantha myriacantha (Boiss.) Podlech] (Fabaceae).
The physicochemical, rheological and mucoadhesion properties of the gum and its fractions was measured at 7, 27, and 37°C with and without the presence of NaCl (1%). Also, the structural and immunomodulatory properties of several water soluble biopolymers isolated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatographic methods were investigated on Jurkat cells at concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL.
The consistency and shear-thinning property of the gum and its fractions decreased as temperature increased. In the presence of NaCl, the consistency increased but no regular pattern was observed regarding to shear-thinning behavior. The mucoadhesion strength was 40.66 ± 2.08 g/cm2 which is suitable for use as a formulary mucoadhesive polymer. The isolated biopolymers had proteo-arabinoglycan structure. Their molecular weight was calculated to be 1.67-667 kDa. One biopolymer had a proliferative effect and others had dose dependent cytotoxic/proliferative properties.
The crude gum and its insoluble fraction showed suitable mucoadhesion, swellability and rheological properties which makes them suitable for designing drug delivery systems. The gum proteo-arabinoglycans with different molecular weight and structures had different immunomodulatory properties.

Keywords

Main Subjects