Document Type: Research article
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fayoum University, Fayoum, 63514, Egypt.
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62514, Egyp.
Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
This study was designed in order to correlate the flavonoid and lipoidal matters content of Spinach roots and flowers to their hypolipidemic potential.
The total flavonoid content was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride while determination of fatty acids methyl esters and unsaponifiable matters contents in both organs was performed using GC/MS. In an in vitro study, the crude ethanol extracts of both organs and their different fractions were separately examined for inhibition of β-hydroxy-β-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA reductase); the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis.
The percentage inhibition of alcohol extracts of roots and flowers were 78.19% and 72.68% respectively when compared to the control. The crude alcohol extracts of both organs were further examined in vivo. Results showed that both extracts improved the investigated parameters by variable degrees compared to fenofibrate reference drug. The root extract showed significant improvement of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG and total lipids (52.75, 209.85, 21.84, 49.26 and 29.62% respectively) when compared to hypercholesterolemic rats. The histopathological picture of liver showed a noticeable amelioration after treatment with root extract. The flavonoid content was higher in flower than root (983.4 and 300.2 mg/kg respectively) while the percentage of sterols and triterpenes in roots was greater than flowers (27.87% and 20.45 % respectively).
In conclusion, the root ethanolic extract recorded more potent activity than flower as hypolipidemic agent either in vitro or in vivo examination which was more correlated to the sterol content than to the flavonoid content.