Dorzolamide Loaded Niosomal Vesicles: Comparison of Passive and Remote Loading Methods

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Science and Technology, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Glaucoma is a common progressive eye disorder and the treatment strategies will benefit from nanoparticulate delivery systems with high drug loading and sustained delivery of intraocular pressure lowering agents. Niosomes have been reported as a novel approach to improve drug low corneal penetration and bioavailability characteristics. Along with this, poor entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic drug in niosomal formulation remains as a major formulation challenge. Taking this perspective into consideration, dorzolamide niosomes were prepared employing two different loading methodologies (passive and remote loading methods) and the effects of various formulation variables (lipid to drug ratio, cholesterol percentage, drug concentration, freeze/thaw cycles, TPGS content, and external and internal buffer molarity and pH) on encapsulation efficiency were assessed. Encapsulation of dorzolamide within niosomes increased remarkably by the incorporation of higher cholesterol percentage as well as increasing the total lipid concentration. Remote loading method showed higher efficacy for drug entrapment compared to passive loading technique. Incorporation of TPGS in bilayer led to decrease in EE, however, retarded drug release rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirmed homogeneous particle distribution and spherical shape with smooth surface. In conclusion, the highest encapsulation can be obtained using phosphate gradient method and 50% cholesterol in Span 60 niosomal formulation.

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