Fabrication and physicochemical investigation of ancient Iranian and Pakistani treated silver particles and their comparison with silver nanoparticles

Document Type: Research article


1 Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran


Iranian and Pakistani traditional physicians have derived the advantages of silver compounds by processing silver to a specific preparation called Kushta to treat skin cancers. This study investigated silver Kushtas in comparison with silver nanoparticles in the terms of morphology, silver content, and chemical composition.
Materials and Methods: Iranian silver Kushta (IKAg) powder was produced via the method of Iranian traditional medicine. Pakistani silver Kushta (PKAg) powder was purchased from Hamdard pharmaceutical company. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced through a chemical reduction method using AgNO3 and NaBH4 at 4°C. Physicochemical properties of all three compounds were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) ,UV spectra Analysis , Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Results: IKAg and PKAg particles show different sizes. However, AgNPs were spherical-shaped and uniform in size. According to EDX analysis, the silver contents of IKAg and PKAg were 50.43% and 66.24%, respectively. IKAg, PKAg and AgNPs showed zeta potential values equal to -2.27, -12 and -18.5 mV, successively. IKAg, PKAg and AgNPs sizes were 190.4, 51.72 and 64.08 nm, respectively. Moreover, XRD results indicated that the composition of IKAg and PKAg are completely different.


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