1Novel Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
3Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Considering multiple reports on cytotoxic activity of the Artemisia genus and its phytochemicals, in the current study A. armeniaca Lam. and the three components isolated from the plant were subjected to cytotoxic studies. Analytical fractionation of A. armeniaca aerial parts for the first time was directed to the isolation of 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (isoarmenin) and deoxylacarol. Extracts and all compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against apoptosis-proficient HL-60 and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, with the lowest cytotoxic activity on normal human lymphocytes. Armenin as the most potent component was selected for further mechanistic study. Increased in sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of HL-60 and K562 treated cells and the cleavage of PARP in comparison with the control after treatment for 48 h verified the apoptotic activity of the armenin. Taken together, according to the finding of this study armenin was introduced as a novel cytotoxic compound with apoptotic activity, which is encouraging for further mechanistic and clinical studies.