In vitro bioactivity and phytochemical screening of extracts from rhizomes of Eremostachys azerbaijanica rech. f. growing in Iran

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4 Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz , Iran

5 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz , Iran

6 Drug Applied research center, and Faculty of Pharmacy and Faculty of traditional Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

The current study evaluated the general toxicity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity of extracts obtained from the rhizomes of Eremostachys azerbaijanica (Labiatae) as well as analyzed the potent extracts using GC-MS. Extracts of E. azerbaijanica in n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) were prepared using a Soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated for free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay. The antimicrobial activity of samples was determined by disc diffusion and brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used to assess general toxicity. The cytotoxicity of each extract was determined by MTT assay against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), human lung carcinoma (A549) and a normal cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC).
The MeOH extract showed significant antioxidant activity and the n-hexane and DCM extracts showed promising activity against gram-positive species when compared with amikacin as a standard. Moreover, the n-hexane extract displayed the most potent activity in general toxicity assay. The results showed that all three extracts have cytotoxicity effects against the A549 cell line. In the case of HT29 cell lines, only the DCM extract exhibited cytotoxicity. Interestingly, none of the extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity against the HUVEC cell line. The bioassay-guided identification of constituents showed the presence of fatty acids and steroids as the compounds responsible for bioactivity in the non-polar extracts.

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