1Microbial Pathogenicity and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
2University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape Province
We evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of Peltophorum africanum, a member of the family Fabaceae (Sond) in order to validate its pharmacological use. Antiproliferation of human breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines by EAE was investigated using the Cell Titer-Blue viability assay and the mechanism of action delineated using the Nucleic Acid and Protein Purification Nucleospin® Tissue Kit, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), propidium iodide (PI) and acridine orange (AO) double-staining techniques. Significant reduction in cell viability of the cells was noted as the MCF-7 cells were reduced from 100 - 54.33±1.84 % after 72 hrs of treatment with 5 µg/mL of EAE (P. value < 0.05). Internucleosomal DNA of MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cells were randomly fragmented into an uninterrupted spectrum of sizes, complemented by the intercalation of nucleic acid-specific fluorochromes by PI and AO spotting two phases of apoptosis; early (EA) and late (LA) apoptosis. Distinctive ultramorphological changes observed include; cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and typical cell induced death. The ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum has the potential to induce apoptosis and could be further studied in vivo as a likely template for new anticancer therapy.