Effects of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) on the Severity of First-Stage Labor Pain

Document Type : Research article


1 Department of midwifery,shahid beheshti university of medical sciences

2 faculty member of shahid beheshti university of medical sciences.

3 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran,Iran

4 -Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Considering that vaginal delivery is a painful process, the present study investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium on the severity of first-stage labor pain in primiparous women. This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted with 126 eligible primiparous patients. The pain severity of patients was measured at the time of enrolling in the study. In the intervention group, (aromatherapy) gauze squares were soaked in 4 ml of Citrus aurantium distillate, and in the control group, gauze squares were soaked in 4 ml of normal saline; each gauze square was attached to the respective patients’ collar. The intervention was repeated every 30 min. Pain severity was measured after the intervention at 3–4, 5–7, and 8–10 cm cervix dilatations. The two groups were standardized with regard to age, profession, education, desire to conceive, and number and severity of uterine contractions. The Bishop’s score was also calculated. Before intervention, pain severity was the same for both groups, but following intervention, pain severity reduced in the intervention group at 3–4 centimeter (P < 0.05), 7–5 centimeter (P < 0.05), and 8–10 centimeter (P < 0.05) dilatations compared with that in the control group. The findings of the study revealed that aromatherapy using Citrus aurantium distillate alleviates labor pain. This method is recommended because of its ease of use and low cost and because it is a non-aggressive method to reduce labor pain.
Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Pain, Complementary medicine, Medicinal plants, Aromatherapy, Labor


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