Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and γ-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum)

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Drug and Food Control, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Islamic Azad University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven.
Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz-Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220°C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively.
The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the roasting temperature and time; until 200°C for 10 min, but they were decreased by roasting at 220 °C in longer time.
Also TPC increased significantly as the roasting temperature. The amount of TPC varied in different sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 µM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz-Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 µM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 µM after roasting in 200°C for 20 min.
The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200°C for 10 and 20 min, respectively.

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