Primary Assessment of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Production by Two Species of Fischerella sp.

Document Type : Research article

Authors

1 Protein Technology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy , School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

10.22037/ijpr.2021.115100.15194

Abstract

Mycosporin-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of UV-absorbing compounds, which can be produced by various organisms such as algae and cyanobacteria, particularly if they survive in highly irradiated environments. In this study, the production of MAAs by two species of Fischerlla sp. (F5 and F14), isolated from the North of Iran, was investigated. Both species, which had previously been morphologically detected as Fisherella sp., were confirmed molecularly by sequencing the PCR amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene. The species were cultured in sterilized BG.11 medium for 21 days, then biomasses were separated, and their MAAs content was extracted by methanol and partially purified using chloroform liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). In both species, the compounds with MAAs characteristics were observed. They had maximum absorbance (λmax) in the range of 300–400 nm, which was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis. In F5 species, the peaks with m/z 340 and 391 and in another one (F14), a peak with m/z 333.2 were recorded, that the latter might be Shinorine. In general, further analysis should be performed to elucidate the exact structural aspects of these compounds. In conclusion, both Fischerella sp. studied here were capable of producing MAAs and can be evaluated for use in sunscreen pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

Graphical Abstract

Primary Assessment of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Production by Two Species of Fischerella sp.

Keywords



(1) Saad A and Atia A. Review on freshwaterblue-green algae (Cyanobacteria): occurrence,classification and toxicology. Biosci. Biotechnol.Res. Asia (2014) 11: 1319-25.
(2) Singh SP, Häder DP and Sinha RP. Cyanobacteriaand ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress: mitigationstrategies. Ageing Res. Rev. (2010) 9: 79-90.
(3) Rastogi RP and Sinha RP. Biotechnological andindustrial significance of cyanobacterial secondarymetabolites. Biotechnol. Adv. )2009) 27: 521-39.
(4) Sinha RP, Singh SP and Häder DP. Database onmycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids(MAAs) in fungi, cyanobacteria, macroalgae,phytoplankton and animals. J. Photochem.Photobiol. B, Biol. (2007) 89: 29-35.
(5) Bhatia S, Garg A, Sharma K, Kumar S, Sharma Aand Purohit AP. Mycosporine and mycosporinelike amino acids: A paramount tool against ultraviolet irradiation. Pharmacogn. Rev. (2011) 5: 138-46.
(6) Torres P, Santos JP, Chow F, Ferreira MJ anddos Santos DY. Comparative analysis of in vitroantioxidant capacities of mycosporine-like aminoacids (MAAs). Algal Res. (2018) 34: 57-67.
(7) Jain S, Prajapat G, Abrar M, Ledwani L, SinghA and Agrawal A. Cyanobacteria as efficientproducers of mycosporine-like amino acids. J.Basic Microbiol. (2017) 57:715-27.
(8) Mushir S. and Fatma T. Ultraviolet radiationabsorbing mycosporine-like amino acidsin cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima:Environmental perspective and characterization.Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci. (2011) 3: 165-71.
(9) Balskus EP and Walsh CT. The genetic andmolecular basis for sunscreen biosynthesis incyanobacteria. Science (2010) 329: 1653-56.
(10) Oren A and Gunde-Cimerman N. Mycosporinesand mycosporine-like amino acids: UV protectantsor multipurpose secondary metabolites? FEMSMicrobiol. Lett. (2007) 269: 1-10.
(11) Tabarzad M, Atabaki V and Hosseinabadi T. Antiinflammatory Activity of Bioactive Compoundsfrom Microalgae and Cyanobacteria by Focusingon the Mechanisms of Action. Mol. Biol. Rep.(2020) 47: 6193-205.
(12) Derikvand P, Llewellyn CA and Purton S.Cyanobacterial metabolites as a source ofsunscreens and moisturizers: a comparison withcurrent synthetic compounds. Eur. J. Phycol.
(2017) 52: 43-56.
(13) Rastogi RP and Incharoensakdi A. Occurrence 414Tabarzad M et al. / IJPR (2021), 20 (4): 405-414and induction of a ultraviolet-absorbing substancein the cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicolaTISTR8215. Phycological Res. (2015) 63: 51-5.
(14) Gharib R, Tabarzad M and Hosseinabadi T. Effectof High Salinity on Mycosporine-Like AminoAcid Production in Desmodesmus sp. Trends Pept.Protein Sci. (2020) 5: 1-6.
(15) Hajimahmoodi M, Faramarzi MA, MohammadiN, Soltani N, Oveisi MR and Nafissi-VarchehN. Evaluation of antioxidant properties and totalphenolic contents of some strains of microalgae. J.Appl. Phycol. (2010) 22: 43-50.
(16) Nübel U, Garcia-Pichel F and Muyzer G.PCR primers to amplify 16S rRNA genes fromcyanobacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997)63: 3327-32.
(17) Valerio E, Chambel L, Paulino S, Faria N, PereiraP and Tenreiro R. Molecular identification, typingand traceability of cyanobacteria from freshwaterreservoirs. Microbiology (2009) 155: 642-56.
(18) Sinha RP. Biochemical characterization ofsunscreening mycosporine-like amino acids fromtwo Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats.Protoplasma (2015) 252: 199-208.
(19) Hu C, Völler G, Süßmuth R, Dittmann E and KehrJC. Functional assessment of mycosporine-likeamino acids in Microcystis aeruginosa strain PCC7806. Environ. Microbiol. (2015) 17: 1548-59.
(20) Carreto JI and Carignan MO. Mycosporine-likeamino acids: relevant secondary metabolites.Chemical and ecological aspects. Mar. Drugs(2011) 9: 387-446.
(21) Rosic NN. Mycosporine-like amino acids: makingthe foundation for organic personalised sunscreens.Mar. Drugs (2019) 17: 638.
(22) Ngoennet S, Nishikawa Y, Hibino T, WaditeeSirisattha R and Kageyama H. A method for theisolation and characterization of mycosporinelike amino acids from cyanobacteria. Meth. Prot.(2018) 1: 46.
(23) Wada N, Sakamoto T and Matsugo S. Mycosporinelike amino acids and their derivatives as naturalantioxidants. Antioxidants (2015) 4: 603-46.
(24) Shang JL, Zhang ZC, Yin XY, Chen M, HaoFH, Wang K, Feng JL, Xu HF, Yin YC, TangHR and Qiu BS. UV-B induced biosynthesis ofa novel sunscreen compound in solar radiationand desiccation tolerant cyanobacteria. Environ.Microbiol. (2018) 20: 200-13.
(25) Babele PK, Singh G, Singh A, Kumar A, TyagiMB and Sinha RP. UV-B radiation and temperaturestress-induced alterations in metabolic eventsand defense mechanisms in a bloom-formingcyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. ActaPhysiol. Plant. (2017) 39: 248.
(26) Cardozo KH, Vessecchi R, Galembeck SE,Guaratini T, Gates PJ, Pinto E, Lopes NP andColepicolo P. A fragmentation study of di-acidicmycosporine-like amino acids in electrospray andnanospray mass spectrometry. J. Braz. Chem. Soc.(2009) 20: 1625-31.
(27) Tsuge Y, Kawaguchi H, Yamamoto S, NishigamiY, Sota M, Ogino C and Kondo A. Metabolicengineering of Corynebacterium glutamicumfor production of sunscreen shinorine. Biosci.Biotechnol. Biochem. (2018) 82: 1252-9.
(28) Rastogi R, Madamwar D and Incharoensakdi A.Sun-screening bioactive compounds mycosporinelike amino acids in naturally occurringcyanobacterial biofilms: role in photoprotection. J.Appl. Microbiol. (2015) 119: 753-62.
(29) Geraldes V, Jacinavicius FR, Genuário DB and PintoE. Identification and distribution of mycosporinelike amino acids in Brazilian cyanobacteria usingultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography withdiode array detection coupled to quadrupole timeof-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun MassSpectrom. (2020) 34: 8634.
(30) Yang G, Cozad MA, Holland DA, Zhang Y,Luesch H and Ding Y. Photosynthetic productionof sunscreen shinorine using an engineeredcyanobacterium. ACS Synth. Biol. (2018) 16: 664-71.