Validation of Simultaneous Biochip-based Method for Screening of 3 Beta-Lactam Families Residues in Cow’s Milk in Accordance with the European Union Decision 2002/657/EC and its Application on Real Samples

Document Type : Research article


1 Food Safety Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

4 School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Illegal and excessive use of veterinary antibiotics as a food additive for growth promotion in livestock can lead to allergic reactions and antibiotic resistance, which is a worldwide concern. A biochip-based semi-quantitative screening method of antimicrobial residues in milk was validated based on Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and the European guideline to validate screening methods for veterinary medicines. This multi-analytical screening method enables to determine of 3 beta-lactams (cefalexin, ampicillin, and cefuroxime) simultaneously. Analysis of 20 blank and 20 spiked milk samples showed that for all 3 antibiotic residues, the positivity threshold T was above cut-off value Fm, and no false-positive results were obtained for all 3 antibiotics. All detection capabilities (CCβ) were below Maximum Residue Level (MRL) authorized by European Commission. 47 UHT cow’s milk samples collected from Tehran province, IR Iran, were screened, and compliance was found in 100% of samples. This study found that the biochip method is valid to determine antibiotic residues in milk samples at the measured validation levels. The method was fast, simple, and able to simultaneous screen three families of beta-lactams from a single milk sample with almost no sample preparation. 

Graphical Abstract

Validation of Simultaneous Biochip-based Method for Screening of 3 Beta-Lactam Families Residues in Cow’s Milk in Accordance with the European Union Decision 2002/657/EC and its Application on Real Samples


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