Document Type: Research article
Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharma Management, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Vice-Chancellor for Food and Drugs Affairs, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Food Safety Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is known as a carcinogen risk factor. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique combined with the QuEChERS extraction method was developed for concurrent analysis of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Iranian traditional Sangak bread samples. The method was validated by determining different parameters, including; linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Calibration curves showed a linear relationship in the concentration range of 10-500 ng/g with a coefficient of determination (R2) ranged between 0.994 and 0.999. The obtained mean recoveries were 92-106% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 3-7% with an acceptable precision (RSD < 20%). The Limit of detections (LODs) for different PAHs were between 0.14-0.78 ng/g, while the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.46-2.60 ng/g. Matrix effect studies showed that the analytes concluded signal suppressions or enhancements. Therefore, spiked calibration curves were used for overcoming this issue. The result of Sangak bread samples analysis using the validated method showed that 9 (19.4%) out of 47 Sangak bread samples were contaminated with phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT) at the mean level of 10.08 ± 6.38 ng/g which were higher than the permissible limit of European Commission regulatory control value for BaP (1 μg/kg of wet weight) in processed cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children.