Document Type: Review Paper
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
The significant threat to humanity is HIV infection, and it is uncertain whether a definitive treatment or a safe HIV vaccine is. HIV-1 is continually evolving and resistant to commonly used HIV-resistant medications, presenting significant obstacles to HIV infection management. The drug resistance adds to the need for new anti-HIV drugs; it chooses ingenious approaches to fight the emerging virus. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), a multi-target approach for specific therapies, has proved effective in AIDS treatment. Therefore, it is a dynamic system with high prescription tension, increased risk of medication reactions, and adverse effects, leading to poor compliance with patients. In the HIV-1 lifecycle, two critical enzymes with high structural and functional analogies are reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN), which can be interpreted as druggable targets for modern dual-purpose inhibitors. Designed multifunctional ligand (DML) is a new technique that recruited many targets to be achieved by one chemical individual. A single chemical entity that acts for multiple purposes can be much more successful than a complex multidrug program. The production of these multifunctional ligands as antiretroviral drugs is valued with the advantage that the viral-replication process may end in two or more phases. This analysis will discuss the RT-IN dual-inhibitory scaffolds' developments documented so far.