HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase/Integrase Dual Inhibitors: A Review of Recent Advances and Structure-activity Relationship Studies

Document Type: Review Paper

Authors

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Abstract

The significant threat to humanity is HIV infection, and it is uncertain whether a definitive treatment or a safe HIV vaccine is. HIV-1 is continually evolving and resistant to commonly used HIV-resistant medications, presenting significant obstacles to HIV infection management. The drug resistance adds to the need for new anti-HIV drugs; it chooses ingenious approaches to fight the emerging virus. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), a multi-target approach for specific therapies, has proved effective in AIDS treatment. Therefore, it is a dynamic system with high prescription tension, increased risk of medication reactions, and adverse effects, leading to poor compliance with patients. In the HIV-1 lifecycle, two critical enzymes with high structural and functional analogies are reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN), which can be interpreted as druggable targets for modern dual-purpose inhibitors. Designed multifunctional ligand (DML) is a new technique that recruited many targets to be achieved by one chemical individual. A single chemical entity that acts for multiple purposes can be much more successful than a complex multidrug program. The production of these multifunctional ligands as antiretroviral drugs is valued with the advantage that the viral-replication process may end in two or more phases. This analysis will discuss the RT-IN dual-inhibitory scaffolds' developments documented so far.

Graphical Abstract

HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase/Integrase Dual Inhibitors: A Review of Recent Advances and Structure-activity Relationship Studies

Keywords