Protective Effect of Crocin on Malathion-induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats: A Biochemical, Histopathological and Proteomics Study

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacodynamy and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

3 Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

5 Food and Drug Control Laboratory, Food and Drug Vice Presidency, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

6 Institute of Pathology, Research Unit Functional Proteomics and Metabolic Pathways, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

7 Targeted Delivery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

In this study, the protective effect of crocin on malathion (MTN) induced cardiotoxicity in rats in subacute exposure was evaluated. Rats were divided into 6 groups; control (normal saline); MTN (100 mg/kg); MTN + crocin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and MTN + vitamin E 200 IU/kg. Treatments were continued for two weeks. Creatine phosphokinase MB (CK-MB), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated in heart tissue at the end of treatments. The effect of crocin and MTN on histopathological changes in rat cardiac tissue was also investigated. The alteration of protein profile in the heart of the animals exposed to MTN was evaluated by proteomic approach through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) software. MTN induced histopathological damages and elevated the level of cardiac marker CK-MB (P < 0.01). The level of MDA increased and the level of GSH reduced (P < 0.001). MDA levels were reduced in all crocin plus MTN groups (P < 0.001) and vitamin E plus MTN (P < 0.001) groups as compared to MTN groups. However, in the crocin (10 mg/kg) + MTN group, the content of GSH compared to MTN treated rats increased (P < 0.001). Protein abundance analysis identified proteins implicated in cardiac necrosis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, cellular energy homeostasis, arrhythmias, heart development, heart failure and cardiovascular homeostasis to be affected by MTN. In summary, MTN may induce damage in the heart tissue of rats following subacute exposure and crocin, as an antioxidant, showed protective effects against MTN cardiotoxicity.
 

Graphical Abstract

Protective Effect of Crocin on Malathion-induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats: A Biochemical, Histopathological and Proteomics Study

Keywords