Anticancer Effects of Valproic Acid via Regulation of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Non-small-cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Line

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Toxicology Research Center, Medical Basic Sciences Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

3 Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran.

4 Human Genetics Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

10.22037/ijpr.2019.111945.13442

Abstract

Epigenetic mechanisms are the most important factors contributing to both the development and metastasis of cancer cells. We aimed to scrutinize the role of epigenetic alternations of genes involved in cancer metastasis, including CD44v6 (metastasis indicator) and Nm23-H1 (a novel tumor suppressor), in the A549 lung cancer cell line. The A549 cells were cultured in the DMEM medium. Valproic acid (VPA) was used as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Caspase-3 activity was assessed by adding DEVD-pNA substrate to the cell lysate. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Finally, protein expression was assessed by western blot. The results showed that VA significantly decreased the expression of the CD44v6 gene and its protein level. This was further accompanied by lower expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes. On the other hand, the expression of Nm23-H1 and its protein were significantly increased in the cells accompanied by higher activity of caspase-3 (P ˂ 0.05). Our results showed that epigenetic regulation of CD44v6, Nm23-H1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 might be involved in the pathogenesis and metastasis of lung cancer. Therefore, the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors can be effective in the suppression of metastases and the treatment of these tumors.

Graphical Abstract

Anticancer Effects of Valproic Acid via Regulation of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Non-small-cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Line

Keywords