Ficus carica L. latex: Possible chemo-preventive, apoptotic activity and safety assessment

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Departmentof Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Drug Design and Discovery Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Toxicologyand Poisoning Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6 Departmentof Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Drug Design and Discovery Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Toxicologyand Poisoning Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Medicinal plants and their components have gained therapeutic consideration as a result of their multi-level beneficial effects. Various medications have been introduced to the market based on traditional use of medicinal plants. The present study investigated cytotoxicity, lethal dose and phytochemical composition of Ficus carica L. (Fig) latex. Fig latex was collected in summer, 4 fractions of Fig latex were prepared and the cytotoxic effect of each fraction was studied. Consequently, the most effective fraction was selected for further evaluation: apoptosis assay, acute toxicity and phytochemical analysis using column chromatography. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. As a result, chloroform fraction was the most effective fraction with the IC50 value of 0.219 and 0.748 mg/ml for HepG2 and NIH cell lines, respectively. Presence of cells in early apoptotic phase was documented by flow cytometry. Single dose administration of 3g/kg of chloroform fraction caused 30% death. Phytochemical analyses confirmed the presence of lupeol acetate and lupeol palmitate in the fraction. The present study revealed that the chloroform fraction is not only 3.4 times more toxic in HepG2 cell line but also has low in vivo toxicity which could be considered as a good candidate for a chemo-preventive agent.

Graphical Abstract

Ficus carica L. latex: Possible chemo-preventive, apoptotic activity and safety assessment

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