Development of a GC-MS Method for Determination of various Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Iranian Traditional and Semi-industrial Taftoon Bread

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Vice-Chancellor for Food and Drug Affairs Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Food Safety Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

This research reports a validated multi-residue method based on gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry technique for analysis of 24 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in traditional and semi-industrial Taftoon bread using QuEChERS sample preparation. Matrix effect studies were performed by comparing the slopes of solvent based standard calibration curves and spiked calibration curves. Due to enhancement or suppression effects of matrix, validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. In the concentration range of 10-500 ng/g, the calibration curves for each analyte was linear with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.991-0.999. The Detection and quantitation limits for the studied PAHs were calculated 0.14-1.49 ng/g and 0.46-4.91 ng/g. The average recoveries for three spiked levels (25, 50 and 200 ng/g), were in the range 77-103% (n = 27), with a satisfactory precision (RSD < 20%). Analysis of Taftoon bread samples using the validated method showed that three compounds; NPH, PHE and ANT were found in 37 (35.2%) samples and in the term of traditional and semi- industrial samples the occurrence of mentioned PAHs were 36.1% and 33.3%, respectively. According to the findings, we proposed that direct flame exposure in gas oven during baking of Taftoon bread could produce PAHs in bread samples.

Graphical Abstract

Development of a GC-MS Method for Determination of various Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Iranian Traditional and Semi-industrial Taftoon Bread

Keywords