Green Nanotechnology-based Gold Nanomaterials for Hepatic Cancer Therapeutics: A Systematic Review

Document Type: Review Paper

Authors

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 USA.

3 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Food and Drug Administration, Gorgan, Iran.

5 School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

6 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran of Medical Sciences.

7 Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

8 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, 1871 Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to systematically review the in-vitro anticancer activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against hepatic cancer cells. The articles were identified through electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Cochrane. In total, 20 articles were found eligible to enter into our systematic review. Our findings showed that 65% of the articles used herbal extracts for the synthesis of AuNPs. Significantly, almost all of the articles stated the biofabrication of AuNPs below 100 nm in diameter. Impressively, most of the studies showed significant anticancer activity against HepG2 cells. Molecular studies stated the induction of apoptosis through the AuNPs-treated cells. We provided valuable information about the molecular mechanisms of AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells as well as their biocompatibility. The studies represented that AuNPs can be effective as anticancer drug nanocarrier for drug delivery systems. In addition, AuNP surface functionalization provides an opportunity to design multifunctional nanoparticles by conjugating them to diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents for theranostic purposes. Overall, our findings depicted considerable biogenic AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity, however, future studies should assess the anticancer activity of biogenic AuNPs through in-vivo studies, which was missing from such studies.

Graphical Abstract

Green Nanotechnology-based Gold Nanomaterials for Hepatic Cancer Therapeutics: A Systematic Review

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