Document Type: Research article
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Imam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Disease-related malnutrition of neurocritical illness harms its treatment, which increases the mortality rate. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of a high protein diet on the dietary factors, clinical outcome, and mortality rate of neurocritical patients. In a randomized controlled trial, 15 neurocritical patients were recruited in each group. Patients in the intervention and control groups received high protein and conventional protein regimens, respectively. The Clinical Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) measured at one, two, and three months later. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the serum level of transthyretin (TTR) on the first, 3rd and fifth days of admission, and nitrogen balance (NB) at the baseline and fifth day of the study recorded. Thirty patients, 15 in each group, entered into the study. There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline characteristics of the patients between the two groups of the study. The 28-days-mortality rate in the intervention and control group were 33.3% (n = 5) and 73.3% (n=11), P-value = 0.034, respectively. The GOSE scores were higher in patients who received a high protein diet, and lower in patients with lower baseline TTR, higher APACHE-II score, older age, and a baseline negative nitrogen balance. The high protein diet may decrease the mortality rate, and improve the clinical outcome of neurocritical patients. The baseline TTR level, APACHE II score, and NB are prognostic factors for the prediction of the GOSE in neurocritical patients.