Development of Managerial Key Performance Indicators for A Hospital Pharmacy Digital Dashboard

Document Type : Research article


1 Department of Health Information Technology and Management, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,Yazd, Iran.

2 Health Management and Economics Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

4 Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Enginearing, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran.


Pharmaceutical performance is a critical factor in the hospital operation. Hospital pharmacy
activities require retrieving, processing, comparing, and updating the information. Dashboards are
new tools that can track key performance indicators by displaying information to managers in order
to improve the performance of the hospital pharmacy. We conducted this study to determine the
performance indicators of hospital pharmacies in Iran. This qualitative research was conducted in
2016. The participants were hospital pharmacists and hospital managers. A semi-structured
questionnaire was constructed to determine key performance indicators of the hospital pharmacy
department. The questionnaire was used in face-to-face interviews and focus groups. The data
were analyzed using Framework analysis. The indicators comprised three domains, including
managerial indicators (satisfaction, education, staffing, and department management), clinical
indicators (patient safety), and financial indicators (income, costs, and financial utilization).
Traditionally, pharmacy services included provision and distribution of drugs in the hospital;
however, today, with an increase in the complexity and diversity of the drugs, hospital pharmacy
services include diverse fields beyond clinical affairs. It could be concluded that pharmaceutical
performance has a vital role in successful hospital management. Hospital pharmacy management
is not possible without monitoring performance indicators.


Main Subjects

Cooper P. Development and Implementation of
Dashboard Technology in an Acute Care Hospital
[dissertation]. University Dominguez Hills, California
(2012) 25-38.
Sadoughi F, Sheikhtaheri A, Meidani Z and
Shahmoradi L. Managment Information System
(Concepts, Structure, Development and Evaluation).
1st ed. Jafari Publication, Tehran (2012) 10-15.
Asadi F, Moghadasi H, Hosseini A and Maserat E. A
survey on pharmacy information system at hospitals
affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical
Sciences. J. Health Admin. (2010) 13: 31-40.
Baldwin G. Dashboards in action. Health Data Manag.
(2011) 19: 34-9.
Satibi Fudholi A, Kusnanto H and Jogiyanto HM.
Influence of intangible assets on hospital pharmacy
performance in central Java, Indonesia. Res. Social
Adm. Pharm. (2012) 8: e24-7.
Anderson PO, McGuinness SM and Bourne PE.
Pharmacy Informatics. 1st ed. Taylor and Francis
Group, United States of America (2010) 36-42.
Tamblyn R, Huang A, Perreault R, Jacques A, Roy
D, Hanley J, McLeod P and Laprise R. The medical
office of the 21st century (MOXXI): Effectiveness of
computerized decision-making support in reducing
inappropriate prescribing in primary care. Can. Med.
Assoc. J. (2003) 169: 549-56.
Karami M, Safdari R and Rahimi A. Effective
radiology dashboards: Key research findings. Radiol.
Manag. (2012) 35: 42-5.
Dagenais J and Grenier S. Key pharmacy indicators
capturing workload and measuring operational
performance in a Canadian Forces clinic. Can. Pharm.
J. (2013) 146: 88-92.
Zeleke B. Clinical Dashboard for Medication
Reconciliation [dissertation]. The College of St.
Scholastica, United States (2012) 41-3.
Freiherr G. Dashboards help you ramp up your practice
performance. Diagnos. Imaging (2010) 32: 5-8.
Azami Aghdash S, Tabrizi JS, Sadeghi Bazargani H,
Hajebrahimi S and Naghavi Behzad M. Developing
performance indicators for clinical governance
in dimensions of risk management and clinical
effectiveness. Int. J. Qual. Health Care (2015) 27:
Eckerson WW. Performance Dashboards: Measuring,
Monitoring, and Managing Your Business. 2nd ed. John
Wiley and Sons, New York (2010) 212-5.
Karami M, Fatehi M, Torabi M, Langarizadeh M,
Rahimi A and Safdari R. Enhance hospital performance
from intellectual capital to business intelligence.
Radiol. Manag. (2013) 35: 36-7.
Safdari R, Kadivar M, Langarizadeh M, Nejad A
and Kermani F. Developing a fuzzy expert system to
predict the risk of neonatal death. Acta Inform. Med.
(2016) 24: 34-7.
Samad Soltani T, Ghanei M and Langarizadeh M.
Development of a fuzzy decision support system to
determine the severity of obstructive pulmonary in
chemical injured victims. Acta Inform. Med. (2015)
23: 138-41.
Shahmoradi L, Safdari R, Piri Z and Dehghani A.
Knowledge sharing as a powerful base for management:
Barriers and solutions. Health Care Manag. (2017) 36:
Baker JD. Language of improvement: metrics,
performance indicators, benchmarks, analytics,
scorecards, and dashboards key. AORN J. (2015) 102:
Ghazisaeedi M, Khara R and Hosseiniravandi M.
Necessitates of using dashboards in health information
management. Health Info. Manag. (2015) 12: 255-62.
Azadmanjir Z, Torabi M, Safdari R, Bayat M and
Golmahi F. A map for clinical laboratories management
indicators in the intelligent dashboard. Acta Inform.
Med. (2015) 23: 210-4.
Safdari R, Ghazisaeedi M, Mirzaee M, Farzi J and
Goodini A. Development of balanced key performance
indicators for emergency departments strategic
dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.
Health Care Manag. (2014) 33: 328-34.
Sabzghabaee AM, Badri S, Ashari HE and Hosseini
SM. The design and equipments of hospital pharmacies
in Isfahan, Iran. J. Res. Med. Sci. (2010) 15: 219-24.
Isfahani SSN, Mirzaeian R and Habibi M. Assessment
of pharmacy information system performance
in selected hospitals in Isfahan city during 2011.
Jundishapur J. Nat. Pharm. Prod. (2013) 8: 3-9.
Morecroft CW, Thornton D and Caldwell NA.
Inpatients' expectations and experiences of hospital
pharmacy services: Qualitative study. Health Expect.
(2015) 18: 1009-17.
Khandoobhai A and Weber RJ. Issues facing pharmacy
leaders in 2014: Suggestions for pharmacy strategic
planning. Hosp. Pharm. (2014) 49: 295-302.
Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ and Scheckelhoff DJ.
ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital
settings: Prescribing and transcribing—2013. Am. J.
Health Syst. Pharm. (2014) 71: 924-42.
Imani A, Janati A, Moghimi M, Golestani M and
Doshmangir L. Identification of indicators for
evaluating the financial and economic performance of
the pharmacy: A systematic review. Pharm. Sci. (2015)
21: 111-24.
Sabzghabaee A, Sajjadi H, Badri S, Hosseini Biuki
S and Sheikhaboumasoudi R. Financial performance
 Dehghani Mahmodabadi A et al. / IJPR (2019), 18 (4): 2124-2130
of the teaching pharmacies in Isfahan: An economic
evaluation. Res. Pharm. Sci. (2009) 4: 99-104.
Veillard J, Champagne F, Klazinga N, Kazandjian V,
Arah OA and Guisset AL. A performance assessment
framework for hospitals: The WHO regional office for
Europe PATH project. Int. J. Qual. Health Care (2005)
17: 487-96.
Karami M. Designing a radiology managment
dashboard for radiology department and
implementation in selected hospital affiliated to
Tehran University of Medical Sciences [dissertation].
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (2014)
Ghazisaeidi M, Safdari R, Torabi M, Mirzaee M,
Farzi J and Goodini A. Development of performance
dashboards in healthcare sector: Key practical issues.
Acta Inform. Med. (2015) 23: 317-21.