Phytochemical Analysis and Various Biological Activities of the Aerial Parts of Scrophularia Atropatana Growing in Iran

Document Type : Research article

Authors

1 Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

5 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

6 Phytochemical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.

7 Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Abstract

Scrophularia atropatana (S. atropatana), an Iranian plant belonging to the family of Scrophulariaceae, was assigned for its chemical compositions and biological activities of essential oil (EO) and extracts of the aerial parts of the plant during the flowering stage. Combination of GC-MS and GC-FID was assessed for analyzing the chemical compositions of the EO from the aerial parts of S. atropatana. Furthermore, Brine shrimp lethality test and DPPH assay were performed to evaluate general toxicity and free-radical-scavenging properties, respectively. Furthermore, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial activities were assessed by MTT assay and disc diffusion methods correspondingly. Additionally, all the potent samples (extracts) and its fractions in the MTT assay were further studied for the presence of various compounds by GC-MS apparatus. MeOH extract and 40% sep-pak fraction indicated high amounts of total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties. In the case of general toxicity, among the extracts, dichloromethane (DCM) extract showed noticeable effect. Furthermore, DCM extract was indicated potent ability to eliminate breast tumor cells and minimum efficacy on normal cells. Anti-microbial activity of all samples was ignorable. The potent extracts and fractions which had more anti-proliferative activity were further elucidated by GC-MS and showed high amounts of Alkanes and fatty acids. In the case of EO constituents, non-terpenoids were the major compounds.To sum up, it seems BSLT could be a good preliminary approach for evaluating the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell line. Additionally, antioxidant activity, TPC, and TFC contents of all samples were in consistent with each other.
 

Keywords

Main Subjects


HemaIswarya S and Doble M. Potential synergism of
natural products in the treatment of cancer.
Phytother.
Res.
(2006) 20: 239-49.
Koehn FE and Carter GT. The evolving role of natural

products in drug discovery.
Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.
(2005) 4: 206.

Organization WH. WHO handbook for reporting

results of cancer treatment.
Geneve (1979) 48: 134-
230
.
Asgharian P, Afshar FH, Asnaashari S, Moghaddam

SB, Ebrahimi A and Delazar A. Characterization of

terpenoids in the essential oil extracted from the aerial

parts of
scrophularia subaphylla growing in Iran. Adv.
Pharm. Bull.
(2015) 5: 557.
Mozaffarian V. A dictionary of Iranian plant names:

Latin, English, Persian. Farhang Mo’aser, Tehran

(1996) 6: 245-56.

Asgharian P, Heshmati Afshar F, Asnaashari S,

Bamdad Moghaddam S and Delazar A. The seasonal

variations of the chemical composition of essential oil

obtained from
Scrophularia frigida. Jundishapur J.
Nat. Pharm. Prod.
(2016) 11: e29742.
Asgharian P, Afshar FH, Asnaashari S, Lotfipour F

and Baradaran B. Evaluation of various biological

activities of the aerial parts of
Scrophularia frigida

growing in Iran.
Iran. J. Pharm. Res. (2017) 16: 277.
Delazar A and Asgharian P. Cardioprotective effects

of methanolic extract of
Scrophularia frigida on
ischemia-reperfusion-induced injuries in isolated rat

heart.
Iran. J. Pharm. Res. (2017) 16: 35-45.
Benito PB, Martinez MA, Sen AS, Gómez AS,

Matellano LF and Contreras SS.
In-vivo and in-vitro
antiinflammatory activity of saikosaponins.
Life Sci.
(1998) 63: 1147-56
.
Shen X, Eichhorn T, Greten HJ and Efferth T. Effects

of
Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. on inhibition of
proliferation, apoptosis induction and NF-κB signaling

of immortalized and cancer cell lines.
Pharmaceuticals
(2012) 5: 189-208
.
Fernandez M, Garcia M and Saenz M. Antibacterial

activity of the phenolic acids fractions of
scrophularia
frutescens
and scrophularia sambucifolia. J.
Ethnopharmacol.
(1996) 53: 11-4.
Tasdemir D, Brun R, Franzblau SG, Sezgin Y and Çalıs

I. Evaluation of antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial

activities of the resin glycosides and the other

metabolites of
Scrophularia cryptophila. Phytomed.
(2008) 15: 209-15
.
Vaez H, Garjani A, Delazar A, Rameshrad M,

Toutounchi N and Nikkhah E. Effect of methanolic

extract of
scrophularia subuphylla on ischemia and
reperfusion-induced myocardial injury.
Pharm. Sci.
(2018) 24: 8-14.

Habibi B, Majidi Z, Fekri K, Delazar A and Vaez H.

Evaluation of the effect of aerial parts of
scrophularia
atropatana
grossh total extracts on analgesic activity
and morphine induced tolerance in mice.
Pharm. Sci.
(2018) 24: 80.

Namvaran A, Fazeli M, Farajnia S, Hamidian G and

Rezazadeh H. Apoptosis and caspase 3 pathway role

on anti-proliferative effects of
scrophularia oxysepala
methanolic extract on caco-2 cells.
Drug Res. (2017)
67: 547-52
.
Bahadori B, Eskandani M, Mieri M, Hamburger M

and Nazemiyeh H. Anti-proliferative activity-guided

isolation of clerodermic acid from
Salvia nemorosa L:
Geno/cytotoxicity and hypoxia-mediated mechanism

of action.
Food Chem. Toxicol. (2018) 120: 155-63.
Mojarrab M, Emami A, Delazar A and Tayarani Z.

Cytotoxic properties of three isolated coumarin-

hemiterpene ether derivatives from
artemisia
armeniaca
lam. Iran. J. Pharm. Res. (2017) 16: 221.
Goodarzi S, Nateghpour M,Asgharian P, Hadjiakhoondi

A, Yassa N and Tavakoli S. Antimalarial and
cytotoxic
activities of roots and fruits fractions of
astrodaucus
persicus
extract. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci. (2017) 20:
1318
.
Heshmati Afshar F, Delazar A, Asnaashari S, Vaez H

and Asgharian P. Screening of anti-malarial activity

of different extracts obtained from three species of

scrophularia
growing in iran. Iran. J. Pharm. Res .
(2018) 17: 668-76.

Nikkhah E, Afshar FH, Babaei H, Delazar A and

Asgharian P. Evaluation of phytochemistry and

some
biological activities of aerial parts and seeds of
scrophularia umbrosa
dumort. Jundishapur J. Nat.
Pharm. Prod
. (2018) 13: e65054.
Nikkhah E, Heshmati Afshar F, Babaei H, Asgharian

P and Delazar A. Phytochemical analysis
and
in-vitro
bioactivity of scrophularia umbrosa rhizome
(scrophulariaceae).
Iran. J. Pharm. Res. (2018) 17:
685-694.

Yaripour S, Delnavazi MR, Asgharian P, Valiyari

S, Tavakoli S and Nazemiyeh H. A survey on

phytochemical composition and biological activity of

zygophyllum fabago
from Iran. Adv. Pharm. Bull.
(2017) 7: 109
.
Afshar FH, Asgharian P, Khodaie L, Delazar A,

Lotfipour F and Baradaran B. Anti-proliferative and

antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract and spe

fractions of
artemisia spicigera. Jundishapur J. Nat.
Pharm.
(2016) 12: e36903.
Delazar A, Asgharian P and Asnaashari S. Biological

and phytochemical screening of eremostachys

azerbaijanica rech. f. aerial parts.
Jundishapur J. Nat.
Pharm.
(2017) 12 (Suppl): 234.
Tofighi Z, Asgharian P, Goodarzi S, Hadjiakhoondi A,

Ostad SN and Yassa N. Potent cytotoxic flavonoids

from Iranian
Securigera securidaca. Med. Chem. Res.
(2014) 23: 1718-24
.
Asnaashari S, Delazar A, Asgharian P, Lotfipour F,

Bamdad Moghaddam S and Heshmati F.
In-vitro
bioactivity and phytochemical screening of extracts

from rhizomes of
eremostachys azerbaijanica rech.
F. growing in Iran.
Iran. J. Pharm. Res. (2017) 16:
306–14.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R and Lamuela-Raventós

RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation

substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu

reagent.
Methods Enzymol. (1999) 12: 152-78.
Zhishen J, Mengcheng T and Jianming W. The

determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and

their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals.
Food
Chem.
(1999) 64: 555-9.
Roshanravan N, Asgharian P, Dariushnejad H,

Alamdari N, Mansoori B, Mohammadi A, Alipour Sh,

Barati M, Ghavami A, Ghorbanzadeh V, Aamazadeh

F and Ostadrahimi A. Eryngium billardieri induces

apoptosis via bax gene expression in pancreatic cancer

cells.
Adv. Pharm. Bull. (2018) 8: 667-74.
Ghavimi H, Sheidaei S, Vaez H, Zolali E, Asgharian

P and Hamishehkar H. Metformin-attenuated sepsis-

induced oxidative damages: a novel role for metformin.

Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci
. (2018) 21: 469–75.
Safarzadeh E, Delazar A, Kazemi T, Orangi M,

Shanehbandi D and Esnaashari S. The cytotoxic and

apoptotic effects of
scrophularia atropatana extracts
on human breast cancer cells.
Adv. Pharm. Bull. (2017)
7: 381.

Middleton P, Stewart F, Al-Qahtani S, Egan P,

O’Rourke C and Abdulrahman
A. Antioxidant,
antibacterial activities and general toxicity of
alnus
glutinosa
, fraxinus excelsior and papaver rhoeas. Iran.
Chemical compositions and biological activities of Scrophularia atropatana1555
J. Pharm. Res.
(2010) 12: 101-3.
Peteros NP and Uy MM. Antioxidant and cytotoxic

activities and phytochemical screening of four

Philippine medicinal plants.
J. Med. Plants Res.
(2010) 4: 407-14
.
Qi F, Li A, Inagaki Y, Gao J, Li J and Kokudo N.

Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during

chemoor radio-therapy for cancer.
Biosci. Trends
(2010) 4: 134.

Giessrigl B, Yazici G, Teichmann M, Kopf S, Ghassemi

S and Atanasov AG. Effects of
Scrophularia extracts
on tumor cell proliferation, death and intravasation

through lymphoendothelial cell barriers.
Int. J. Oncol.
(2012) 40: 2063-74
.
Valiyari S,
Yari S and Baradaran B. Dichloromethane
and methanol extracts of
Scrophularia oxysepala
induces apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer

cells.
Adv. Pharm. Bull. (2012) 2: 223.
Kim KH, Choi SU, Kim CS and Lee KR. Cytotoxic

steroids from the trunk of Berberis koreana.
Bioscie.
Biotech. Biochem
. (2012) 76: 825-7.
Newman RA, Yang P, Pawlus AD and Block KI.

Cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents.

Mol. Interv.
(2008) 8: 36.
Winnicka K, Bielawski K and Bielawska A. Cardiac

glycosides in cancer research and cancer therapy.
Acta
Pol. Pharm
. (2006) 63: 109-15.
Yang X, Kang MC, Lee KW, Kang SM, Lee WW and

Jeon YJ. Antioxidant activity and cell protective effect

of loliolide isolated from
sargassum ringgoldianum
subsp. coreanum.
Algae (2011) 26: 201-8.
Malek SNA, Shin SK, Wahab NA and Yaacob H.

Cytotoxic components of
pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.
(Cactaceae) leaves.
Molecules (2009) 14: 1713-24.
Manoharan S and Kaur J. Anticancer, antiviral,

antidiabetic, antifungal and phytochemical constituents

of medicinal plants.
Am. J. PharmTech. Res. (2013) 3:
149-69
.