The essential oil of the root of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) was analyzed by capillary GC and GC /MS. The major constituents were identified as viridiflorol (23.05 %), elemol (3.63 %), b-maliene (3.07 %), spathulenol (3.34 %) and 2-tetradecanol (3.38 %).
essential oil of the root of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) was analyzed
by capillary GC and GC /MS. The major constituents were identified as viridiflorol
(23.05 %), elemol (3.63 %), b-maliene
(3.07 %), spathulenol (3.34 %) and 2-tetradecanol (3.38 %).
genus has 10 species in Iran. H. persicum Desf. Ex Fischer (syn. H. pubescens
Rech., H.glabrescens Boiss. & Hohen.) (Apiaceae) is an annual herb,
indigenous to the Alborz region, the northern part of Iran, where it grows at an altitude ranging from 2000 to 3000 m (1). Its fruits are used
commonly in Iran as spices, while the fruits and the young shoots are used in
the preparation of pickles. In folk medicine, the fruits were administered
because of their carminative activity (2).
A search through the literature revealed that roots of
H. persicum have been investigated because of their of furanocoumarins;
five of which compounds were isolated and identified (3). Another report dealt
with the presence of such compounds in leaves and seeds of this species (4) (from
the seeds, six furanocoumarins were isolated, two of which were also found in
the leaves). From the diethyl ether extracts of the fruits of H. persicum,
an aglycone was identified which was revealed to be quercetin (5).
The essential oil from of fruits (6) and leaves (7) of
H. persicum was investigatedby means of GLC, GC/MS, and NMR. The
fruit oil contained about 95 % of aliphatic esters, 4 % of aliphatic alcohols
and 1 % of monoterpenes 37 esters and 17 monoterpenes were also identified (6).
Major component in the leaf oil was trans-anethole. Other components were b-pinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, a-caryophylene,
zingiberene, spathulenol, cis-anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene and b-springene (7). The oil analysis of some genus Heracleum has
neen reported, previously (8-14). Literature review show that, the chemical
composition of the oil of H. persicum root has not been studied so far.
The main aim of this article was identification and determination of essential
oil components of this plant.
Roots of Heracleum persicum Desf. Ex Fischer
were collected in Chalous Road (north of Tehran) in Auguest 1996, at altitude
2400m. Voucher specimens were authenticated and then deposited in the Herbarium
of the Department of Pharmacognosy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical
Sciences (Voucher No. 15).
Essential oil Extraction
The air-dried roots of the plant were subjected to
hydrodistillation for 3 h using a clevenger- type apparatus.
was analyzed using GC/FID HP 6890 fitted with a 30-m x 0.25 mm
HP5 column, that was temperature programmed as follow:
60?C (2min) to
240?C (5 min) at 5?C/min, with He as carrier gas (1 ml/min), the temperature of the injector
and detector were 260?C and 230?C, respectively.
GC/MS: HP 5973 with a HP 5 column, 25 mm x 0.25 mm (film
0.25 μm) was used. The operation conditions were as
described above. The ionization voltage was 70 eV.Identification
of compounds was based on a comparison of their mass spectra with Standards
(15). Confirmtion of compound identities was obtained using retention index
Results and Discussion
Hydrodistillation of dried roots of H. persicum in
a clevenger-type apparatus yielded 0.13 % yellowish color and a strong odor. As
it is shown in Table 1, ca 61% (45 compounds) of the oil was identified. It
also showed that the main constituent was viridiflorol (23%). Other major
components (>1%) were a-pinene, b-pinene, n-octanal, p-cymene-8-ol,
(E, Z)-a-farnesene, 2-tetradecanol, kessane, (-)-spathulenol, b-maliene, b-selinene, a-amorphene and
elemol. b-Pinene, a-terpinene and
dihydrocarveol have been detected in the root oil of H. canescens as
major components (13). Terpinen-4-ol and a-terpinene in the
root oil of H.ponticum, and allo ocimene (cis and trans) in the root oil
of H. lehmaniannum, were detected, too (14). Among of components
identified in root, 1-hexanol, a-pinene, limonene, cis-ocimene
and linalool in fruit, and a-terpinolene, E-anethol, E-a-bergamotene, spathulenol, Z- and E-a-farnesene in leaves
of H.persicum have been reported, previously. b-pinene exists in root, leaves and friuts of the plant (3, 7).
Viriflorol was reported in some of essential oils, previously (16-22).
Chemical composition of the root oil of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex
?1-Ethyl-2, 4-dimethyl benzene
(E, E)-2, 4-Decadienal
* isomer was not identified.
We are grateful to Dr. M. R. S. Ardakani,Department
of Pharmacognosy, schoolof Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, for his collaboration in GC/MS experiment.
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